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Ways to Promote the Language and Communication Skills of Infants and ToddlersMarch 9, 2017
What Is Stuttering?
Stuttering is a speech disorder that affects more than 3 million Americans, according to the National Institute on Deafness and Other Disorders. Stuttering occurs when normal speech is interrupted by the repetition or extension of certain sounds or words. Stuttering, also called stammering, can range in frequency and intensity from mild to severe. Sometimes, speaking in front of a group or talking on the telephone can aggravate the condition, while singing or reading can reduce stuttering. Stress can sometimes make it worse. The struggle to speak may be accompanied by physical gestures or movements.
Causes of Stuttering
Experts don’t know for sure what causes stuttering in a child, but most believe that the speech disorder occurs as the result of a variety of factors. They may include one or more of the following:
- Genetics. Most experts agree that stuttering has a genetic component. Sixty percent of all people who stutter have a close family member who also stutters.
- Developmental stuttering. Many young children go through a period of stuttering beginning at the age of 18 months to 2 years, as they hone their speech and language skills. This form of stuttering is usually temporary.
- Neurological factors. Research has found that people who stutter process language differently than those without the speech disorder. In some cases, there seems to be a problem in the way language is transmitted through the brain. Scientists don’t know exactly why this occurs.
Risk Factors for Stuttering
How do you know whether a stuttering child has a temporary developmental problem, or a more serious speech disorder that warrants intervention? According to the Stuttering Foundation, the following factors put your child at greater risk:
- Family. Your child is at higher risk if he or she has one or more family members who stutter in adulthood.
- Age. Children who begin stuttering before they reach age 3½ are more likely to outgrow it.
- Length of time stuttering persists. If your child’s stuttering habit lasts longer than 6 months, it is less likely that he or she will outgrow it.
- Gender. Boys are three to four times as likely as girls to stutter.
- Other speech and language deficits. If your child has other problems speaking and being understood, it is less likely that he will outgrow his stutter.