Attention Deficits Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

Attention Deficits Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a most common psychiatric disorder of childhood. Although about one-third of children are described by their parents as overactive, and 5-20% of school children are described by teachers, these reports encompass a continuum of behavior ranging from normal high spirits to a severe persistent disorder. The overactivity often worries in different situations. The norms of childhood behavior therefore encompass a spectrum of behavior that is often culturally determined and therefore it is important to ensure that Attention Deficits Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) denotes the functionally impairing persistent end of the spectrum.

Signs and Symptoms of Kids with ADHD

The core features of Attention Deficits Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in children are:

1. Inattention:
  • Fails to finish the things started
  • Shifts from one uncompleted activity to another
  • Does not seems to listen
  • Easily distracted by external stimuli
  • Often loses things
2. Hyperactivity:
  • Fidgety
  • Difficulty in sitting at one place for long
  • Moving about here and there
  • Talks excessively
  • Interference in other people’s activities
3. Impulsivity:
  • Acts before thinking on the spur of the moment
  • Difficulty in waiting for turn at work or play

These features are Pervasive, occurring across situations, although they can vary somewhat in different circumstances, so that parents and teachers may give rather a different account of the child’s behavior.

Children with the disorder are often reckless and prone to accidents. They may have learning difficulties, which results in part from poor attention and lack of persistence with tasks. Many develop minor forms of antisocial behavior as the condition continues, particularly disobedience, temper tantrums, and aggression. These children are socially inhibited and can cause disruption both at home and in the classroom. They can be susceptible to bullying and can be easily influenced by ‘silly’ things. Mood fluctuates, but low self-esteem and depressive mood are common.

Restlessness, overactivity, and related symptoms often start before school age. sometimes the child overactive as a baby, but more often significant problems begin when the child starts to walk; they are constantly on the move, interfering with objects and exhausting their parents.

The 2010 Global Burden of Disease Study found that worldwide point prevalence rate of childhood Attention Deficits Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) was 2.2% in males and 0.7% in females (Erskine et al., 2013).

Etiology Attention Deficits Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD):

Attention Deficits Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is due to both heritable and non-heritable factors, and there is much evidence suggesting a disorder of higher cognitive executive function related to abnormalities of neurotransmission in the prefrontal cortex and associated subcortical structures.

Treatment for Attention Deficits Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD):

  • Pharmacotherapy
  • Behavior Modification
  • Cognitive Behavior Therapy
  • Counselling and Supportive Psychotherapy